Reproductive Endocrinology: Then and Now

Dr. Kreiner Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Causes of Infertility, Co-culture of Embryos, Cryopreservation, Embryo Glue, Endometriosis, High order Multiple Births, Infertility Information, IVF, Laboratory, Micro IVF, Physicians, Regulation of IVF, Reproductive Health, Research, Single Embryo Transfer, Treating Infertility, Tubal Disease Leave a Comment

My son is starting his second year residency in obstetrics and gynecology. He, like I was 30 years ago, is turned on by reproductive medicine and enjoys performing gynecologic surgery. When I decided then to specialize in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) I was looking forward to being on the frontier of fertility medicine. The details of Reproductive physiology were being unraveled in real time and IVF had just reported its first successful pregnancies. In those days, microsurgery of the fallopian tubes was commonly performed by REIs as well as endometriosis and fibroid surgery.

During my fellowship, surgery was a huge part of my training. I travelled to Nashville to train with one of the world’s experts in laser laparoscopy. I practiced my tubal microsurgery skills weekly on anesthetized rats in a plastic surgical lab. I assisted on reproductive surgery several cases every week throughout my fellowship.

Myself and other fellows performed research on basic reproductive physiology questions that had yet to be worked out. Personally, my interest was polycystic ovarian disease and its relationship to weight gain. I studied male hormone production in the ovary and the adrenal gland before and after significant weight loss. I discovered that there was an inverse relationship between weight loss and male hormone production and that this was mediated through insulin. These were exciting times. If only we had metformin back then, I would have proven that in addition to weight loss, we could decrease insulin levels and therefore male hormone levels with metformin.

Today, discoveries in reproductive physiology are much more esoteric than it was when I was a fellow. Reproductive surgery, in particular tubal microsurgery and laser laparoscopy for endometriosis and adhesions is usually replaced with in vitro fertilization (IVF) which has become so much more successful, less invasive and therefore a preferable option. Most causes of infertility, if they are not successfully treated with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be overcome with IVF.

In the 1980’s when I was a fellow, IVF was grossly inefficient and we had to transfer multiple embryos to achieve a pregnancy. Consequently, triplets and quadruplets were not rare occurrences. In many programs, they constituted over 10% of all pregnancies. Today, we can often transfer one embryo at a time minimizing the risk of multiple pregnancies. We can freeze excess embryos so many patients need go through only one stimulation and retrieval and still have multiple transfers providing them with an excellent chance of conceiving a baby from their efforts.

Today, we get excited about advances in preembryo genetic screening and diagnosis and contemplate the current and future potential of eliminating hereditary medical disorders. This involves highly trained laboratory personnel who perform the latest technologic advances. In 2010, the REI, in general is removed from a hands on involvement with the frontiers of Reproductive Medicine and instead works like a film producer gathering his team including these lab personnel, nurses, etc and directing them as to how to approach his patients’ fertility problems. It used to be that he used the microscope and laser laparoscope to perform the tubal and endometriosis surgery. The IVF retrieval and transfer were new procedures that were still being perfected.

Today, they are the routine cases performed daily by the REI.

My son looks at the REI of today as a doctor who starts his day with 1-2 hours of ultrasound that is part of the daily ovulation monitoring for IUI and IVF. Many REIs no longer perform more surgery than hysteroscopy and occasional laparoscopy or myomectomy in addition to their retrievals. These are all considered routine procedures now. The current frontier in infertility is limited pretty much to the laboratory. Though many of us consider ourselves expert in stimulations, retrievals and transfers and while we know we make a significant difference in our patients’ outcomes our work does not appear or feel as glamorous as it once did. Perhaps, he will decide, as I did, that the pleasure in helping women build their families is sufficient reward. Or perhaps, this Nintendo generation, will seek a more apparently exciting lifestyle. How about that Robotic surgery?

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